Robert Casteels was born in 1958 in Tienen, but he soon moved to Brussels. He received his musical education at the music school of Vorst, where he earned the government medal for piano and chamber music. In 1976, Casteels was accepted into Robert Leuridan’s piano class at the Brussels conservatory. There, he earned six first prizes and a higher diploma in five years. In private lessons with the Marcel Quintet in Tervuren and with Peter Maxwell Davies in Dartington, he developed additional skills in analysis and composition.
After earning his first diploma at the conservatory, Casteels composed and performed for a time as a chamber musician. He improvised on the piano for the classical dance classes of Maurice Béjart’s ballet school, Mudra, he was the organist of the Sint-Denijskerk in Vorst, and he accompanied the Nausikaä choir. In various music schools, he worked as an accompanist and taught harmony. At the same time, Casteels was studying orchestral conducting with Ronald Zollman at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels, where he was awarded the Horlait-Dapsens and the De Kerkhove prizes for “academic excellence.” He also attended seven summer courses in orchestral conducting in Nice, Dartington, Hilversum and Szombathely, where Peter Eötvös was a particular influence on him. In 1981, Casteels founded GUSO – the Ghent University Symphony Orchestra – and in 1983, the Brussels Wind Ensemble.
In 1984, Casteels decided to continue his studies in orchestral conducting at some of the leading international institutes. In London, he studied with Vilem Tausky at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. In New York, Casteels won the audition to the Juilliard School and was consequently offered the Bruno Walter Scholarship and the position of music director of the Juilliard Pre-College Orchestra. Leonard Bernstein and Zubin Mehta left an indelible mark on his education. In 1986, Casteels became a finalist in the New York Conducting Workshop. This achievement gave him the opportunity to conduct in the Juilliard Dance Festival.
In 1987, Robert Casteels returned to Belgium, where he focused not only on orchestral conducting but also on the study of foreign languages (German and Italian). Two years after he earned the first prize in orchestral conducting at the Brussels conservatory, Casteels won the jury’s special prize for contemporary music in Budapest at the sixth international orchestra conducting competition of the Hungarian radio and television. Afterwards, Casteels worked for a short time in Belgium. At the Munt, he worked as the assistant conductor for opera and as the conductor for ballet. At the conservatory of Brussels, Casteels taught orchestral conducting and conducted the symphonic and opera productions, such as Rihm’s Jakob Lenz, Mendelssohn’s Midsummer Night’s Dream and Boulez’s Rituel.
In 1995, Casteels left Belgium again to go abroad. At Jo McNally’s invitation, Casteels accepted the position of dean of the Faculty of Performing Arts at LASALLE-SIA College of the Arts, a private arts university in Singapore. What began as a six-month trial period soon became eight exciting years in a young and energetic country. There, Casteels founded two ensembles: the LASALLE Gamelan Ensemble and the Philharmonic Winds. With the latter ensemble, Casteels won a gold medal with distinction in 2005 during the fifteenth edition of the World Music Contest in Kerkrade (NL). In Singapore, Casteels played a pioneering role in the field of Western new music by introducing music by Boulez, Ligeti, Xenakis and Stockhausen, among others. In 2001, Casteels was awarded the Christoffel Plantin prize for his work and research abroad. Here is an excerpt of the jury’s statement when the prize was awarded: “Since his arrival in Singapore in 1995, Robert Casteels has developed his musical activity excellently in two ways, which gives honor to our country: on the one hand, he regularly introduces Belgian music and performers to Singapore; on the other hand, he studies the ways in which the Western and Eastern music can fuse together through the composition of more than twenty multidisciplinary works.”
Beginning in 2003, Casteels concentrated primarily on composing and teaching. In his compositions, Asian music continues to have an important influence. Resonances of Asia shows that influence very clearly. This collection of three CDs contains original music from various Asian countries but also Casteels’ own compositions, which fuse elements together of both of these diverse musical cultures. At the University of Melbourne in 2004, Casteels wrote his doctoral dissertation, Berlayar ke Mata Hari (Set Sail to the Sun): a folio of original compositions comprising the use of gamelan instruments with related exegesis.
Casteels’ oeuvre consists of 115 opus numbers that were composed between 1981 and 2017. Chronologically, his compositional activity falls largely into two periods: the period from 1981 to 1988 in which Casteels composed 14 opus numbers, and the period from 1995 to 2013 in which he composed 84 opus numbers. This latter period, which played out in Singapore, can be divided further into sub-periods: between 1997 and 1999, Casteels wrote 20 works, which place the gamelan in a central position; in 2000 came a one-year hiatus; from 2001, his compositional activity increased. 2011 and 2017 can be seen as high points of his compositional activity: Casteels composed no fewer than fourteen and eleven works, respectively, in these two years. Casteels’ oeuvre is very versatile. In addition to orchestral works, works for solo instruments, art songs, choir works and chamber music works, Casteels also composed an opera, film music, works for carillon and works with traditional Asian instruments.
Casteels’ symphonies reflect the versatility of his oeuvre. To date, he has written five symphonies, the fourth of which has not yet been completed. The four completed symphonies are very diverse both with regard to instrumentation and with regard to form.
Regarding instrumentation, the use of traditional Asian instruments stands out in the first three symphonies: the first symphony is written for a large orchestra with a hundred instruments from Europe, Malaysia and India; the second symphony is for seventy Western and Chinese instruments; and the third is exclusively for Chinese instruments. The fifth symphony, on the contrary, calls for only Western instruments.
Regarding form, Casteels follows the principle that the content determines the form. This principle can be seen clearly in Symphony No. 1. Casteels was commissioned by the National University of Singapore to write this piece for its 100th anniversary. The form has seven parts: with the exception of the overture and the coda, each section depicts a historical period of 20 years. Casteels’ style in this symphony can be characterized as postmodern; classical forms (passacaglias and rondos) are combined with tonal, bitonal, or neo-tonal writing. The motivic development throughout the various sections of the symphony is innovative; fragments of motives from other sections are constantly repeated or serve as harbingers of material to be developed later. The content of the other symphonies is very diverse. In Symphony No. 2, Casteels’ fascination for “the number seven” manifests in a through-composed work in which seven sections can be discerned. The inspiration for Symphony No. 3 is the painting The Village by the Singaporean painter Cheong Soo Pieng. The symphony has three movements; each begins with the same chord, but develops differently. There is a symbolism behind this: Casteels wants to portray that every person is born in a place that he has not chosen himself (the chord), but that he is able to make choices that influence his life’s trajectory (the movements’ contrasting development). The basis for Symphony No. 5 comes from astronomy: the transit of Venus in 2012. In this symphony, Casteels presents musical processes that take place in the universe: recycling of dust and energy becomes the recycling of rhythms and pitch intervals, falling stars become glissandi, the stars’ colors correspond to different sound colors, the stars’ degree of brightness is reflected in musical nuances, etc.
Casteels does not use Asian instruments only in his symphonies. These instruments are regularly called for in his other works. There is, however, one family of Asian instruments to which Casteels gives significant attention: the gamelan. Casteels was particularly inspired by the gamelan and extensively studied its various sounds. This study eventually led to the composition of Berlayar, a nineteen-part cycle in which gamelan sounds are juxtaposed with keyboards and Western instruments. This combination creates a special sound world that is not merely tonal, atonal, Eastern, or Western. With this new world of sound, Casteels faced a lot of criticism. He was accused of using the gamelan only as a generator of sound and for abstracting the cultural tradition with which the instrument is connected.
From the Western tradition, the guitar and the organ are remarkably well represented in Casteels’ oeuvre. Casteels’ treatment of the guitar was inspired by the Japanese Hiroki Niibori, who made an orchestral instrument out of the guitar. Casteels embraced this idea by frequently using the guitar in combination with orchestra or in ensembles. His most interesting compositions for guitar are his City Scape and El Jardin de la Vita y la Muerte. In City Scape, Casteels combines an orchestra of acoustic guitars with electronics in a variable form: the instruments are divided into five groups and freely react to the hand signals of the conductor. El Jardin de la Vita y la Muerte is a ballet for electric and synthesizer guitars, gu zheng, harpsichord, orchestra, four trumpets, mezzo-soprano, small choir, solo percussion and lithophones. Each group of instruments plays a role in the bullfight depicted in the ballet. The guitars provide the flamenco.
The organ is also present in many of Casteels’ compositions. Despite his love for this instrument, Casteels composed only three solo works for organ: Abba, Flower Drum Song and Dayung Sampan and De Vuurtoren. Abba – which means “father” in Aramaic – revolves completely around the “pater noster.” For material, Casteels uses the tonality of d, a typical “pater noster” rhythm of two eighth-notes followed by a half note, two different modes and a quotation from a chorale by Mendelssohn. Flower Drum Song and Dayung Sampan are transcreations: Casteels selects elements from existing works in order to create new works. In these pieces, Casteels works with Chinese and Malaysian folk songs, which he interrupts with his own interventions.
Casteels is a pianist by training, and it shows in his eight solo works for piano and one concerto. These works reveal Casteels’ very diverse musical interests. Suite is a children’s piece that has four movements and is written in an atonal idiom. Here, Casteels shows a preference for using quartal chords. In Soliloquy X and XI, timbre is put in the spotlight through the combination of piano with prepared piano. Sui Yuan is a very formalistic composition in two movements. The compositional material consists of one musical sentence that itself has six components and is a palindrome. In the first movement, the sentence is repeated twelve times. With each repetition, one note per component disappears. The second movement progresses in just the opposite way: the sentence grows gradually. L’Accent Grave, on the other hand, contains a theatrical aspect: the pianist is not only an instrumentalist, but also a speaker. The Red Lanternis a very aleatoric work: it is essentially film music for Capellani’s silent film of the same name, but the score provides only a timeline, a description of the film and a description in words of the musical theme to be played. In Grosse Sonate, Casteels uses collage technique: every note from this work comes from one of Beethoven’s piano sonatas. Moreover, every movement of the piano sonatas is systematically quoted by consecutive opus number.
Casteels also wrote one work for two pianos, Tintinabulum, and one for piano four hands, When two Nations meet. Tintinabulum sets the name of the work’s commissioner to pitch in six variations. When two Nations meet juxtaposes the national anthem of Belgium with that of Singapore by way of a double fugue.
Casteels’ chamber and ensemble works are characterized by complexity. This complexity can be felt on two levels: for the performer and for the listener. The way in which that complexity takes shape varies from composition to composition.
An example of complexity for the performer is Potteke Vet Ludus Tonalis. This ensemble piece, confronts two Flemish tunes—Potteke vet and ajuin—with each other. The transition between the two themes is achieved by way of a fixed motive. After an introduction, both themes are played in various major-third keys. The motive is played between the presentation of each theme, but it is always extended. After presenting both themes in eleven keys, Casteels introduces a stretto of Potteke vet in the same keys, followed by a re-exposition and a stretto of ajuin. After this comes a coda in which ajuin appears simultaneously in four keys. Subsequently, the development of both themes comes to a halt and a complex chord of fifteen pitches gradually builds up. This chord finally reaches a surprising resolution on a C triad. In playing with the two themes, Casteels demands a great deal from the musicians on a technical level: the work is so virtuosic that the wind orchestra for which the work was composed—the Singapore Wind Symphony—could not perform it. Warum ist das Licht uns gegeben shows two other difficulties that performers in Casteels work frequently face: the combination of tonality with modality and polyrhythm.
Complexity for the listener is created by Casteels extensive formalism. Examples include Terwijl ik volop zomer ben 1, Quadrangolo and Vagatio Super Fuga Vocibus Tribus et Tubis Quinque. The latter work is not a traditional fugue, but rather a wandering journey based on fugal elements. Of course, this means that the listener cannot follow the development of the fugue as clearly. Casteels’ formalism is fueled by his interest in numerology. Compositions such as Pianotrio, Trois-Vingts and Sixty-Six are formally based on a specific number or a series of numbers. The Irremediableand L’(autre) fille aux cheveux de Bali also pose specific problems for the listener. For some, the combination of different tuning systems, pentatonics, tonality and atonality create a world of sound that is difficult to understand.
In addition to instrumental music, Casteels’ oeuvre also contains many vocal works. His vocal compositions range from songs and choral works to a single opera.
In the choral works Il pleure dans mon coeur and Terwijl ik volop zomer ben 2, Casteels clearly expresses his love for quartal chords. In Berlayar Ke Mata Hari V and Invitation to the Voyage, Casteels mixes Eastern and Western elements and combines different musical idioms. For example, Berlayar Ke Mata Hari uses three types of chords: a serial gamelan chord of nineteen sounds, well-tempered chords and chords of nineteen overtones on the bass notes of B-flat, E-flat, F-sharp, C and A-flat. In Invitation to the Voyage, various gamelan sounds are combined with five simultaneous tempi. Such an interweaving of elements from different traditions creates a high complexity. The choral work shadow catcher is very innovative in other areas: written for a rapper and choir, the work calls for the choir singers to use extended techniques and do body percussion. That all of this is contained in a composition that begins as a Tibetan prayer, but which evolves into post-tonal language based on whole-tone scales, is certainly unconventional.
Casteels’ songs are—more than his choral works—characterized by a very close connection between music and text: the music often translates what the text is telling in a literal way. For example, the text in the cycle Music from the Heart deals with love in different ways. Casteels represents this theme explicitly in the music by alternating instrumental passages with the sound of human heartbeats. Casteels also uses such textual representation in the individual songs from this cycle. In By the Temple, for example, the mountain climbing discussed in the text is depicted by rising lines in the piccolo and the slowing pace of the poet’s steps is depicted by a slowing global rhythm. Another way in which Casteels makes the relation between music and text explicit can be found in Song of the Open Road and Féline Colère. In both compositions, he connects certain words with a specific pitch: when a word returns, the pitch also returns.
Perhaps the highlight of Casteels’ vocal works is the opera De kaartridder. Throughout his career, Casteels always had the ambition to write a vocal work with a theme related to his hometown, Tienen. His original idea was to write a cantata in the dialect spoken in Tienen, but in the end, an opera seemed better suited to realizing this idea. Casteels composed the opera De kaartridder in 2012 for the nearby city of Landen. The libretto of this opera tells the story of Riddart, a local variation on the well-known Faust typology. Casteels tries to connect the music closely to the text, resulting in a very eclectic style. The opera music contains modal passages, a rap, a minnelied and interventions with live electronics. The instrumentation is also rather special: a wind ensemble, a keyboard, a harp, five strings instruments and a choir. The choir plays the role of the main character in the libretto and also comments on the events.
Although Casteels’ oeuvre is very diverse, there is nevertheless an element that seems to be a constant throughout Casteels’ compositions. Regardless of the instrumentation of a work or the genre of a composition, Casteels often connects the work’s thematic content with the music. In his symphonies, as previously mentioned, the content determines the form, but also in his other works, an extra-musical idea often forms the starting point for the music. Nature is a recurring theme in this regard. A Day in the Life of a Garden, for example, is a musical allusion to a day in a Singaporean park. The work contains pre-recorded sounds from nature that are played in combination with piano and percussion. Nature also directly inspired the soundscape of Taman Suara, which includes sounds from bamboo and banana leaves. In Bird Songs, Casteels uses an ensemble of acoustic instruments to create a bird song of ten endangered birds. Fireflies and crickets translates the visual polyphony of fireflies and crickets into music. It is not uncommon for an extra-musical building block of a composition to also be critical in nature. For example, with Whisper in the night, Casteels wants to portray intolerance that in his opinion is destroying the world. This is achieved by a percussionist who recites a text about war, violence and the disrespect that people show towards each other. By playing with the resonance between three flutes and a grand piano in Mirror of Sound, Casteels tries to portray the idea that all civilizations are equal and express a belief in biodiversity. Via the graphic score No M, Casteels encourages the performer and listener to reflect on the relationship between art and money.
List of works
Works for and with piano: Song (1982), Suite (1982), Vocalise (1982), Il pleure dans mon coeur (1989), Soliloquy X and XI (1999), The Irremediable (1999), Sui Yuan, (2002), A Day in the Life of a Garden (2003), L’Accent grave (2005), Two Hymns (2006), Song of the Open Road (2008), Bird Songs (2009), Tintinabulum (2009), Trois-Vingts (2009), Simple-X (2010), La Troisième Femme (2011), Shame, shame (2011), The Red Lantern (2011), Grosse Sonate (2012).
Works for and with guitar: Symphony no. 2 (2006), Taman Suara (2007), Taman Suara 2. ‘Pontianak’ (2007), Bird Songs (2009), Qapla’ (2009), chiaroscuro (2010), El Jardín de la Vida y La Muerte, (2010), City Scape (2012), Krus ng Aking Ina (2012), Khi (2013), Semisopochnoi (2014).
Works for gamelan instruments: Berlayar Ke Mata Hari IV (1997), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari versi ke dua ‘Jogya’ (1997), Bee Kayem: age 6 (1998), Bee Kayem: age 7 (1998), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari XIV ‘The Mask’ (1999).
Works with gamelan instruments: LASALLE Spatial Fanfare For A New College (1995), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari versi ke tiga ‘Sentosa’ (1997), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari V ‘New Voices’ (1998), Bee Kayem: age 9 (1999), Bee Kayem: age 13 (1999), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari XV ‘Carré blanc’ (1999), Invitation to the Voyage (1999), Soliloquy XVII or Scymboals (1999), Hui Rao (2001), Qie Yu (2001), Elegy to the men you don’t meet ev’ryday (2002), L’(autre) fille aux cheveux de Bali (2002), Sonata Profana (2002), Whisper in the night (2003).
Works with Indian, Japanese or Korean instruments: Invitation to the Voyage (1999), Centennial Symphony (2005), A line runs away (2006), Mirror of Sound (2009), …dotted line… (2010), Holler across the Holler (2010).
Works with Chinese instruments: Bee Kayem: age 9 (1999), Hui Rao (2001), Qie Yu (2001), Elegy to the men you don’t meet ev’ryday (2002), L’(autre) fille aux cheveux de Bali (2002), Sonata Profana (2002), Centennial Symphony (2005), A line runs away (2006), Symphony no. 2 (2006), Symphony no. 3 (2006), Mirror of sound (2009), El Jardin de la Vida y la Muerte (2010), Holler across the Holler (2010).
Works with Sprechstimme: Regina Caeli (1983), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari versi ke dua ‘Jogya’ (1997), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari versi ke satu ‘Chijmes’ (1997), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari XV ‘Carré blanc’ (1999), Qie Yu (2001), shadow catcher (2003), Whisper in the night (2003), L’Accent grave (2005), Taman Suara (2007), Bird Songs (2009), De Kaartridder (2010), Shame, shame (2011), Symphony no. 5 ‘Venus’ (2012).
Works with (singing) voice: Il pleure dans mon coeur (1981), Lied (1981), Portrait (1982), Terwijl ik volop zomer ben 1 (1982), Vocalise (1982), Quadrangolo (1983), Regina Caeli (1983), Terwijl ik volop zomer ben 2 (1983), Warum ist das Licht? (1996), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari XV ‘Carré blanc’ (1999), Invitation to the voyage (1999), Shadow catcher (2003), Symphony no.2 (2006), Two Hymns (2006), Song of the open road (2008), Bird Songs (2009), Qapla’ (2009), El jardin de la Vida y la Muerte (2010), Féline Colère (2010), Song of the Open Road (2010), De kaartridder (2011), Greed&Fear (2011), Shame, shame (2011), By the Temple (2012), In Praise of Sake (2012), Krus ng Aking Ina (2012), Music from the Heart (2012), Se Ora (2012), Winter Love (2012).
Works for or with organ: Quadrangolo (1983), Warum ist das licht? (1996), , Centennial Symphony (2005), Symphony no.2 (2006), Two Hymns (2006), Flower Drum Song and Dayung Sampan (2007), Holler across the Holler (2010), Abba (2011), De kaartridder (2011), De Vuurtoren opus 96.
Works for strings: Trois pieces brèves pour violon (1981), Arachne (1982), Terwijl ik volop zomer ben (1982), Quadrangolo (1983), Regina Caeli (1983), Vagatio Super Fuga Vocibus Tribus et Tubis Quinque (1983), Scylla (1984), Convocation Fanfare 2 (1995), Potteke Vet Ludus Tonalis (1996), LASALLE Spatial Fanfare For A New College (1995), Warum ist das Licht? (1996), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari versi ke satu ‘Chijmes’(1997), Hui Rao (2001), NUS Ceremonial fanfare (2005), Sound Journey (2006), Two Hymns (2006), Stomp (2007), Taman Suara (2007), Qapla’ (2009), Fireflies and crickets (2010), Holler across the Holler (2010), The Orator (2011), Collage for 6 violoncelli (2013), Six-strings Characters in Search of a Conductor (2013).
Works for brass: Seven Venus Transit Concert Studies (2012).
Works with electro-acoustic elements: Berlayar Ke Mata Hari IV (1997), Bee Kayem: Age 8/ Imaginary Bee Kayem (1998), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari V ‘New Voices’ (1998), Bee Kayem: age 9 (1999), Bee Kayem: age 13 (1999), Bee Kayem: age 19 (1999), Berlayar Ke Mata Hari CV (Carré blanc) (1999), Cnvctn (1999), A day in the Life of a Garden (2003), Spirit of Wood (2003), Spirit of Wood (2003), Taman Suara (2007), Bird Songs (2009), De kaartridder (2011), Greed&Fear (2011), Simple-X (2011), City Scape (2012), Music From the Heart (2012), Symphony no.5 (2012).
Works for carillon: ’s Winters (2013), Torenhoog (2013), Tussen hemel en aarde (2013).
Works without prescribed instrumentation: No M (2010).
Chamber music: Trees (1982), Trio pour violon, flûte alto et clavecin (1983), Convocation Fanfare 2 (1995), Trio for violin, cello and piano (2007), Nachtlied (2010), Se Ora (2012), Kyawulsarang (2013), Riddart, waarhenen gaat de tocht? (2013).
Works for orchestra: Centennial Symphony (2005), Symphony no. 2 (2006), Symphony no. 3 (2006), Symphony no. 4 (2006), Song of the Open Road (2010), Symphony no. 5 (2012).
CASTEELS, R., Food, Plants and Music, s.l., 2007.
– Berlayar Ke Mata Hari V, Cnvctn, Invitation to the Voyage, The Irremediable en Bee Kayem: age 9, op SET SAIL. Contemporary Asian Arts Centre. 2001.
– Cnvctn, Berlayar Ke Mata Hari V, The Irremediable en Bee Kayem: age 9, op BERLAYAR. NUS The Centre for the Arts. 2004.
– L’(autre) fille aux cheveux de Bali, Spirit of Wood opus 45, A Day in the Life of a Garden, Three Flemish Songs, Kreisleriana, Hui Rao en Spirit of Wood, op KREISLERIANA. NUS The Centre for the Arts. 2004.
– Sonata Profana, Sui Yuan, Whisper in the night, Elegy to the men you don’t meet ev’ryday en shadow catcher, op SONATA PROFANA. NUS The Centre for the Arts. 2004.
– CENTENNIAL SYMPHONY (National University of Singapore). 2005.
– SYMPHONY NO. 2. (Robert Casteels, Shane Thio, Margaret Chen, The Philharmonic Winds Anglo-Chinese Junior College Choir). video-opname. 2006.
– L’(autre) fille aux cheveux de Bali, op SINGAPORE MIDEM 2007. Composers&Authors Society of Singapore, National Arts Council en Media Development Authority. 2007.
– Taman Suara, Sound Journey en Symphony no. 2, op ROBERT CASTEELS. Casteels, R. 2008.
– Triphony, Mirror of Sound en Tintinabulum, op RESONANCES OF ASIA (VOL. 1). CIC. 2009.
– Spirit of Wood, chiaroscuro en Bird Songs, op RESONANCES OF ASIA (VOL. 2). CIC. 2010.
– Nachtlied, op La Noche. 2011.
– shadow catcher, Nachtlied, Sui Yuan, Shame, The Irremediable, Tintinabulum, chiaroscuro en Greed&Fear, op RESONANCES OF ASIA (VOL. 3). CIC. 2012.
– Greed&Fear, op RESONANCES OF ASIA (VOL. 4). CIC. 2012.
– DE KAARTRIDDER (Robert Casteels). Elyon. Landen. 2012.
– City Scape en El Jardín de la Vida y La Muerte, op SINGAPOREAN ORIGINAL COMPOSITIONS FOR NIIBORI GUITAR ORCHESTRA. NUS The Centre for The Arts. 2013.
Contemporary Asioan Art Center
Ridge Books (Singapore)
Texts by Marie Moonen, Jolie Giouw and Bart Vanhecke.
Last update: 2019